Fairfield State Hospital operated from 1931 to 1995. At its peak, it housed over 4,000 patients. Treatments included frontal lobotomy, hydrotherapy, use of the drugs metrazol and insulin in shock therapy, patient seclusion, electric shock therapy.
The 1996 film "Sleepers" used the hospital as a setting. Actors on location included Robert De Niro, Brad Pitt, and Kevin Bacon.