Buriano was built in the middle ages and was mentioned already in the year 973. It belonged to the Counts Aldobrandeschi, before it passed on to a local family named Lambardo who had control of the castle until 1332 when they gave over its power to Siena. In 1389 the castle was owned by the Appiano family of Pisa, who later will succumb to attacks and sackings by the Sienese. At the end of the century it was included in the Principality of Piombino, for a long time satellite of the Spanish 'Stato dei Presidi'. It became part of the Granduchy of Tuscany only in 1814.