During World War II, the airport was provided to the United States Army Air Forces during the summer of 1944 as a heavy bomber airfield, used by the Eighth and Fifteenth Air Forces for shuttle bombing missions (Operation Frantic).
Military - Air Ports
Poltava was designated as USAAF Station 559 for security purposes and was referred to as Station 559 in all messages and written correspondence. Poltava was one of three Ukraine installations operated by Headquarters, Eastern Command, United States Strategic Air Forces, which was stationed at Poltava.
Aircraft would fly into the Airfield from either United Kingdom or Southern Italy after attacking enemy targets in Eastern Europe. The aircraft would refuel and rearm at the airport, then attack enemy targets on return missions to Southern Italy. Bombing missions of Operation Frantic ended in September 1944