Rafah camp is one of eight Palestinian refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. It is located in the Rafah Governorate along the Egyptian-Palestinian Authority border. It was established in 1949 and currently forms part of the city of Rafah. During the period of its establishment, it was the largest refugee camp in the Gaza Strip, however its population has decreased due to migration to the Tall as-Sultan camp, an extension of Rafah camp, which was set up to absorb refugees repatriated from Canada Camp.
According to the UNRWA, the camp had a population of 95,187 inhabitants in 2005 in contrast with the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics estimate of approximately 58,000 during that year. The camp is the second largest refugee camp in the Palestinian Territories. There are 31 schools (20 primary, 11 secondary) run by the UNRWA.