The first document concerning the castle dates from 1090. During the middle ages, it was one of the main fortresses in the region then known as the Bas-Poitou. The main tower (keep) was built in the thirteenth century, then enlarged in the fifteenth century, giving the structure its near present-day appearance.
Until the sixteenth century, the lords of La Flocellière belonged to the powerful Surgères family. The wife of René de Surgères, the last of the line, was a poetess who wrote in the style of Ronsard. During the Wars of Religion, the castle was the scene of several battles between Protestant and Catholic forces.