The Fortezza Vecchia (Old Fortress) was designed by Antonio da Sangallo to strengthen the small, square fortress (known as the quadratura dei pisani (the Pisans' square) or rocca nuova (new fortress) which the Pisans had built near an old tower. The Fortezza Vecchia became the residence of Cosimo I, who built a famous cistern in its precincts (Redi praises its water). In his Guida di Livorno, Piombanti tells of how, in October 1734, after a storm, a whale was stranded at the feet of the Fortress. This happened again in January 1753, when two whales were shot from the top of the bastion, as they neared the Porto. In 1590, the Fortezza Nuova (New Fortress) was built in only five months, and later connected to the Old Fortress by means of a solid curtain. Located between piazza Carlo Alberto and the theatre S. Marco, the New Fortress could be accessed by means of a draw-bridge lowered over the surrounding moat. In 1629, Ferdinand II ordered the demolishion of half of the New Fortress, to enable the construction of residences.
Military - Historic