Plesetsk Cosmodrome

It was originally developed by the Soviet Union as a launch site for intercontinental ballistic missiles. Construction started in 1957 and it was declared operational for R-7 rockets in December 1959. The urban-type settlement of Plesetsk in Arkhangelsk Oblast had a railway station, essential for the transport of missile components. A new town for the support of the facility was named Mirny, Russian for "peaceful". By 1997, more than 1,500 launches to space had been made from the site, more than for any other launch facility, although the usage has declined significantly since the breakup of the Soviet Union.

Recently (May, 2007) a new ICBM, called the RS-24 has been tested and launched there, and is seen as eventually replacing the aging RS-18s and RS-20s that are the backbone of Russia's missile forces. Those missiles are known in the West as the SS-19 Stiletto and the SS-18 Satan.
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